You will need to provide a formal written report to the TIS program funder, the Australian Government Department of Health (DoH). The Department has provided a new reporting template which is also available for download from this page. Teams should note that contrary to the current Standard Grant Agreement, which has six and 12 month progress reporting, each progress report for TIS funded teams, will now cover a six month period.
TIS RTCG six month performance report template
Performance reporting presentation with Penney Upton – December 2020 (narrated slides)
In addition to the general tips for performance reporting below, please listen to this short presentation (20 minutes) which concerns completion of the performance report. Please note: The presentation will start playing automatically when opened.
Performance reporting presentation with Penney Upton – December 2020 (PDF with notes)
This is the PDF version of the performance reporting presentation with notes.
Performance reporting FAQs – December 2020
This document provides general advice and answers frequently asked questions about the indicators for performance reporting.
The following two files are extracts from Penney Upton’s presentation for the last reporting period. The advice offered is still relevant for the current performance reporting period, however, please note that the reporting deadlines mentioned in the first presentation are no longer current. Click on ‘play slide show’ to get the narrated versions of these slides.
The performance report is your opportunity to show the difference your program is making in the communities across your region. As there is a limited number of words, you need to make them count. The NBPU has developed a number of tips for presenting the progress you are making, which should be read along with the guidance document and good practice example:
Evidence suggests that supported quit attempts (e.g. using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), having group or individual counselling) are more successful than unaided attempts. However not everyone wants to use medicine such as NRT, or see a counsellor and many smokers quit unaided.
Unaided quitting is known as going ‘cold turkey’. Smokers who want to quit this way should be advised to make a plan. Planning when they will quit and what they will do when cravings strike means they are more likely to succeed. The aim is to change the habits associated with smoking. This means thinking about things such as when and where someone smokes. Planning includes:
The case study in Box 1 provides an example of how someone was able to quit using this method. Support from family and friends was an important part of this process.
Box 1: Quitting Cold Turkey
As a crisis support worker for the Kamunga Aboriginal Health Service working with young homeless people and those in other critical situations, Margie Jackson could have plenty of excuses for continuing to smoke. But after smoking 70-plus cigarettes a day for 26 years, Margie’s body was telling her that it was time to give up.
Margie first took up smoking after the birth of her daughter as a way of coping with postnatal depression. She thought that smoking would be a better way of dealing with the depression than taking medication. Over the years, Margie made many a new year’s resolution to quit smoking but they were always short lived. Wednesday, the 18th February 2004, though was different. After suffering from chest infection every winter, Margie finally decided to quit.
Margie felt the key to success in this quitting attempt was both her strong commitment to doing so, and a sense that the time had come to face up to the damage that smoking was doing both to her health and to her wallet. She was staggered to find that she had smoked her way through $6000 worth of cigarettes every year. But it was watching her mother die of smoking-related illness that finally forced Margie to realise the damage that smoking could do.
After briefly trying nicotine patches and finding that they did not suit her, Margie was able to quit ‘cold turkey’. Support from friends, family and work colleagues, especially other smokers, were an important part of the quitting process. Her partner at the time, out of consideration for Margie, took to smoking outside the house; he soon followed her lead and gave up himself. This positive feedback gave her both a sense of pride in what she was doing and her self esteem a real boost.
Margie says she cannot remember suffering from bad nicotine cravings; instead, she focused on the positives she was experiencing from being smoke-free. She found new joy in her favourite foods and perfumes once her sense of smell and taste quickly recovered. Her skin also felt smoother and her clothes no longer had the odour of tobacco smoke. While Margie did gain a bit of weight, she has since been able to lose most of it. This has been further helped by her increased fitness because of no longer suffering from regular bouts of bronchitis.
Margie feels she encourages other smokers around her to quit – not through giving them lecture but through leading by example. She likes to share her experience with friends and family in the hope that it will inspire them to quit too. Margie is to be congratulated on her success and we would like to thank her for sharing her story with us.
Material adapted from:
Usually when someone quits using the cold turkey method they quit all at once. Evidence shows this is more successful than tapering (cutting down), even if someone chooses to quit using support from pharmacology or a health professional. However not everyone is ready to quit smoking. For anyone not quite ready to quit, but who is starting to think about the benefits of not smoking, cutting down is a good way for people to get more control over their smoking and start to change their smoking habit. Cutting down can give people the confidence to quit. More tips on how to cut down are given in Box 2.
Box 2: How to cut down on the smokes
To get any health benefits it is necessary to stop smoking completely, but some people aren’t ready to do that. They may feel nervous about quitting or feel put off because they have been unsuccessful at quitting in the past. But there are ways to help people get more confident and feel more in control of their smoking. They can practise not smoking in every-day situations where they would normally smoke, as well as cutting down in other ways. By doing this they are taking small steps towards quitting for good. Some suggestions to cut down are:
There are two types of data that you can collect, quantitative and qualitative:
Quantitative data is numerical and includes audits or counts. For example you could count the number of attendees at an activity, the number of activities carried out, the number of referrals to a quit support group.
Qualitative data is the information you get when you gather people’s thoughts or feelings about an activity. You might gather this through an interview when you ask people to tell you in their own words what they thought about an activity, or what the benefits of going to a quit support group have been. However qualitative data can take many forms – people might also be asked to express their feelings through photographs, paintings, drama, or other imagery.
The type of data you collect will depend partly on the question you want answered but also on the sort of data collection methods that will work best in your community.
Counting is the most basic (and easiest) type of data collection. You can count the number (N) of participants, the kind of participants (e.g. age, smokers, non-smokers, male / female), and the outcome of participation (e.g. N who were referred to Quitline or quit support services). It is important to make sure you collect good quality data by accurate and consistent counting (making sure you count the same thing in the same way each time).
Case studies and success stories are both ways of showing the impact of your project. This story of impact is really important and the reason your M&E has to go beyond just numerical counts. CIRCA have provided a space for you to tell these stories on the six-monthly performance report.
You should provide a story that shows the impact your activities have against each of the program indicators. The focus of this story might be:
Case studies and success stories are very similar. The main difference is the point of view from which the story is written:
Case studies and success stories should be specific and include relevant information (data) as evidence of the difference you have made. They can be illustrated with quotes and photos – but remember to get people’s permission to share their information. You can find out more about how to gather data for an individual case study here. You can also download templates for writing your case studies and success stories.
A focus group is a planned discussion with selected individuals, which you use to gather information, or opinions – for example on your activities – or to measure local knowledge of the benefits of quitting, what quit support is available and so on.
The group should be held in a familiar and comfortable environment so participants feel at ease. It is good practice to provide snack and drinks so that participants feel welcome and valued. This also sets a friendly and informal tone for the session. The group should be run by someone who can keep the conversation ‘on topic’ without influencing what people say (they should be impartial).
It is important to know what you want to ask before going into the focus group – this Focus groups resource provides a guide to writing focus group questions. You can also find an example of questions for focus groups on TIS topics such as the second module in the Aboriginal tobacco resistance toolkit on workplace smoke-free policies. You also need to think about how you will record what people say. Will a second person make notes on the discussion, or will you make a video or audio recording? If you use any kind of recording device, you must ask people’s permission first.
A more detailed guide on running a focus group can be found here.
Interviews are one-to-one question and answer sessions. Interviews are usually best carried out face-to-face, although telephone interviews are also popular. Instant messaging can also be used if your participants have the technology and are happy to use it.
As with a focus group you need to choose a setting for the interview where you and your interviewee feel comfortable, and where there will be no interruptions. You also need to have planned your questions, and thought about how to record what the person you are interviewing says. Will you take notes, or make an audio recording? Again you must get the person’s agreement if you want to record them.
This Semi-structured interviews resource can be a helpful guide to developing and writing interview questions for evaluation. Examples of the kinds of questions you might want to ask about knowledge of smoking harms and tobacco use can be found on the Resources to monitor and evaluate your program page. More general information can be found in this Interviews factsheet.
There are two types of observation:
Observation can be useful when you want to find out if people are keeping to smoke-free policies. A checklist, such as the example provided by the Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council (AH&MRC) in its Aboriginal tobacco resistance toolkit is a good way of recording your observations:
This is a good method of gathering information from a large number of people. This information is collected by asking everyone the same questions. The kind of data you get will depend on the questions you ask. For example questions which give people a fixed set of answers (closed questions) will give you quantitative data:
You can then count how many people say ‘yes’ and how many say ‘no’. Or you could ask them to rate how satisfied they are with the support group on a scale of 1-5:
You can then count how many found the group very helpful, somewhat helpful and so on. However questions with yes/no answers or simple rating scales like this might not tell you everything you want to know. You might want to ask a question that allows people to give a free written response;
People can write what they like and this will give qualitative data. An advantage of this is that you will get much more detailed information about what people think. The disadvantage is that you might have to spend a lot of time organising answers so as to make sense of what is being said. The type of question you ask and the response choices you give people are therefore very important.
A helpful guide to developing and writing survey questions for evaluation can be found here. Examples of the kinds of questions you might want to ask about knowledge of smoking harms and tobacco use can be found in the Survey question bank on the Resources to monitor and evaluate your program page along with a template for a post workshop feedback questionnaire that you could use to find out about participant satisfaction with activities. An example of using a questionnaire for evaluation can be seen in Box 1.
You might also want to find out more about what members of your project team and experts in the community think about the importance of your organisation’s activities for the community as a whole. To do this you can carry out something known as a Constituent survey of outcomes.
Box 1: Using a questionnaire to evaluate an activity
During the delivery of ‘Operation Smoke Signals’, an evaluation was done to see whether it was meeting the project’s objectives. Using a questionnaire, participants were asked for their feedback about the quitting course to measure their satisfaction levels. They were asked questions, such as:
The results of the questionnaire showed that participants felt comfortable taking part in the course, that they found the staff friendly and the topics covered helpful. However, some had to drop out because they had problems with transportation and child care. To improve the running of the course, the local community bus is now picking up those participants who need a lift, and child care is being offered by the health service.
Stories are a good way of capturing individual experiences. They are usually verbal, but can use a range of other methods such as writing, drawing, drama, web sites/blogs. When using storytelling for evaluation the focus is on how individuals or groups make sense of their experiences. Story telling is increasingly being recognised as a way of capturing significant changes in people’s lives.
A guide to using verbal story telling for evaluation, and how to use templates to collect significant change stories can be found here. You can also find a significant change story template here or on the Resources to monitor and evaluate your program page. Section four of the Talkin’ up good air: Australian Indigenous tobacco control resource kit also has some useful information and advice on gathering stories.
Examples of other creative approaches to gathering data including playing games, creating a storyboard or using photography can be found in this Creative strategies resource.
Monitoring and evaluation will take place at two levels for the TIS program. It is expected that all TIS funded organisations will monitor their activities and evaluate project outcomes at a local level. In addition, a national evaluation of all the components of the TIS program will be carried out. There are two evaluators of the National TIS program. Part A of the evaluation will be conducted by the Cultural & Indigenous Research Centre Australia (CIRCA). Part B of the evaluation will be conducted by the Australian National University (ANU).
Six National Indicators will be used to assess TIS program progress. Each of these indicators is described below, along with the data sources described by CIRCA and examples of data collection methods. Click on any of the data collection methods listed under each indicator to learn more about that specific data collection technique. You can also find more monitoring and evaluation resources to help you here: Resources to monitor and evaluate your program
NBPU TIS strongly recommends that you collect both quantitative and qualitative data. This will allow you to address the National Indicators in full and tell the story of your successes. It will also ensure strong data for your own internal monitoring and evaluation of your activities as part of your continual quality improvement (CQI) process.
The outcomes related to this indicator are:
Data sources described by CIRCA are:
This indicator focuses on two aspects of your activity:
Numerical data (counts) of the number of community members and community leaders involved in or attending your activities/smoke-free events is a simple way of addressing this indicator. Social media analytics are also important. This indicator is concerned with increasing the reach of your activity, so if your project is working, the number of community members and leaders involved in your activities should increase over time. If they don’t then you will need to think about why this is happening. Do you need to find new ways to engage community interest? You might also want to think about how representative of community the people you do see at your activities are. For example, are there certain groups in your community you are just not reaching, such as full-time workers? How could you make sure your activities are accessible to everyone? Or it might be that all community leaders are now involved in your activities. In this case, maintaining their involvement will become a key task for you.
You also need to find out what people think about your TIS activities and if they have learnt anything new about smoking, such as ways to quit, or support for quitting that is available in your community. This is because reach is not just about the number of people who attend your activities, but about how many listen to and understand the message (the third outcome under this indicator). This kind of data can be either quantitative or qualitative, and can be collected through:
As this data is not directly captured by the six monthly progress report, it will be important to provide this information as part of the story around your activity (case study or success story). You should also give a description of what you did to engage the community, reflecting on what worked and what didn’t work and why. What are the strengths of your community and its leaders that have made this activity a success? You will also need to consider what the risks and challenges have been for your team, and how you have worked to overcome them.
Simple numerical data (counts) for each type of evidence-based population health promotion activity you do will address this part of the indicator. You will also need to record the location of your activities (e.g. neighbourhood, town or region). Activities of specific interest under this indicator are:
To avoid repetition, partnership working and collaborations developed do not need to be reported here. This information will be captured under Indicator 2. It will also be important to demonstrate (through your Action Work Plan) that these activities are evidence-based.
The outcome related to this indicator is:
There is simple data you can collect around the number and type of organisations, services or individuals you have partnered with as part of your population health promotion activities. Of specific interest are partnerships with:
As you can see from the data sources described by CIRCA, it will be useful to think about the purpose of these partnerships, for example if they increase your reach into areas within the region you are contracted to service, or priority populations including pregnant women, or people who do not typically attend ACCHS. You should also collect more detailed data which describes the quality and extent of your collaboration with different partners and how these partnerships have improved geographical or priority group reach, for example through case studies of the partnership journey.
Think about the quality of your relationships with the different organisations you have entered into partnership with as well. Different ways of doing this include tools that involve the grant recipient organisation and their partner/s individually assessing the relationship and then coming together to discuss and move forward. Examples of these tools include:
This information will be an important part of providing the story around your activity (case study or success story). What did you do to engage the organisations, what worked, what didn’t work and why? What are the strengths of your organisation and those you have partnered with that have made this activity a success? What were the risks and challenges and how have you worked to overcome them?
This indicator is concerned with community access to quit services. Access to healthcare services is only possible if:
If both of these are in place, we should see good uptake of services.
From the data sources described by CIRCA, you can see there is simple data you can collect around the number and percentage of staff in your own organisation or others, who have:
This will provide information about the availability and capacity of appropriate services. CIRCA are interested in formal training courses which staff have done – specifically Quitskills.
You also need to report the number of organisations you have supported to develop or maintain their capacity to carry out brief interventions with clients. This could be providing or facilitating a training day for new staff, or a refresher course for staff in another organisation.
You should also collect more detailed data which describes the impact of training on staff knowledge and skills, and their confidence in supporting community members asking for advice (the third outcome under this indicator). You can collect this data through:
You should report this information as part of your case study or success story as it is not captured directly on the six monthly report. You can also report any relevant training carried out at your own or another organisation that was not Quitskills as part of this story.
You will need to collect simple data (counts) of:
A good way of finding out whether awareness of services has increased in (a) the community and (b) healthcare practitioners (the second outcome under this indicator) is through:
This will provide good data to support your case study or success story. Examples of surveys you can use or adapt for your own region are available from the NBPU Survey Question Bank. You can also provide more qualitative data around how your project has supported local communities in the region to get better access to quit support. This could be based on:
You will also need to report any risks and challenges for your team in delivering against this indicator, and how you have worked to overcome these challenges.
From these data sources you can see there is simple data you should collect around the number of events locally that you have supported to be smoke-free, how many organisations you have worked with to develop/improve smoke-free policies or to increase worker compliance with policies. You can also count how many homes and cars are smoke-free or, how many people have pledged to be smoke free. Good ways of doing this include:
You will also need to report on your own organisation’s smoke-free policy, including whether or not staff and board members comply with smoke-free policies:
You should also collect more in-depth data on understanding about what being smoke-free means and how important it is to people to try to be smoke-free. You can ask the smokers if they go without smokes at home, in the car, near their children, at work, or on other occasions, and how they handle smoke-free times. Good ways to get this information are:
Finally, you should describe how you have supported the communities in your region to become more smoke-free and how people have responded to these activities. You will also need to report any risks and challenges for your team in delivering against this indicator, and how you have worked to overcome these challenges.
This indicator is concerned with whether your activities are reaching and engaging priority groups in your service area. Some of these groups have been described nationally (e.g. pregnant women), however there may also be other groups of people which are a priority for your community (e.g. older men).
A simple count of the priority groups you have identified for your service delivery area, and the number and type of targeted activities you do for each of these groups will also be important (e.g. targeted health education sessions, targeted social marketing or targeted events). You will also need to report the number of people participating in these activities. Activities of interest include:
You should also collect more in-depth data to tell the story of the difference your activities are making for priority groups. This could include questions about new knowledge about the benefits of being smoke free, what being smoke-free means to them, and how important it is to your priority groups. You might ask mums-to-be what they are doing to keep their home and car smoke-free, if they are trying or intending to quit, and if so has anyone else in the family joined them on their smoke-free journey. Good ways to get this information include:
This will provide good data to support your case study or success story.
This indicator focuses on geographical reach. You need to show that the activities you do extend across your contracted service area and include community members who do not routinely use ACCHO services. Simple numerical data (counts) will address this indicator, and include the number, type and location of your activities. You will also need to report the number of people who attended. Specific activities of interest include:
You should also provide a detailed description of what you did to engage the communities across your service area, reflecting on what worked and what didn’t work and why. It will be useful to report this as part of your case study or success story. You will also need to report any risks and challenges for your team in delivering against this indicator, and how you have worked to overcome these challenges.
A national evaluation of the TIS program will take place. The evaluation of the TIS program for the next phase of the program will be split into a two-part process. The Cultural and Indigenous Research Centre Australia (CIRCA) will conduct part A of the TIS evaluation. The organisation conducting part B is the Australian National University (ANU).
The Monitoring and Evaluation Framework for the TIS program 2018-19 to 2021-22 is available here. This document provides a framework for part A of the evaluation of the TIS program, and includes information on:
A preliminary evaluation report of the TIS program was produced by CIRCA. The report provides an evaluation of the first year of the TIS program (Jan – Dec 2016), with a focus on the regional tobacco control grants delivering localised Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander tobacco interventions. A number of recommendations are made to further enhance outcomes from the program, which are directed at the Government, the Department of Health, and key program stakeholders.
The final evaluation of the TIS program from 2015-2018 was produced by CIRCA, and released in March 2019. The evaluation looked at: how effective the TIS program is; how well it meets the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities; and whether it’s on target to achieve its long term goals. The report found that the program is on track to achieve long-term objectives to reduce tobacco use among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
Other activities can support people to succeed in their attempts to quit. While nicotine addiction plays a big role in maintaining smoking behaviours, factors such as the social interactions that smoking supports, and psychological causes such as habit, also make it hard for smokers to quit.
Giving people new habits and ways of interacting to replace the gap left by not smoking may therefore be helpful. For example, if someone uses ‘going for a smoke’ with friends and family as a way of having a yarn or as an opportunity to debrief or blow off steam with co-workers, then it is important that they find other ways to engage in these important social interactions. So ‘come and have a smoke with me’ might become ‘come and have a cuppa’ or ‘come for a walk/bike ride/swim’.
There is some evidence that exercise can be an aid to smoking cessation. Recent evidence from Canada has shown that including a structured exercise program alongside nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can increase quit rates and this is sustained over time. Exercise seems to reduce withdrawal and cravings for cigarettes. This may be because physical activity stimulates the reward centres in the brain in a similar way to smoking. The pleasurable ‘high’ that exercise delivers might also provide a distraction from the cravings and negative thoughts experienced during quitting.
Aerobic exercise (e.g. running, swimming, cycling) and some kinds of strength training (isometric) is especially helpful for reducing withdrawal symptoms and cigarette cravings. Effects can last as long as 50 minutes after the exercise session. As well as starting a regular exercise routine, someone trying to quit might use exercise as a distractor when an urge for a cigarette strikes. This might be as simple as going for a short walk. For more tips on coping with cravings see Box 1. To find out more about strategies for people who are quitting smoking to manage stress read the Key facts about smoking and stress factsheet.
In the longer term, exercise programs might help prevent relapse by boosting self-esteem, feelings of wellbeing and reinforcing a person’s self-image as a non-smoker and physically active individual.
Box 1: The four Ds guide to beat the craving…
Delay acting on the urge to smoke. Don’t open a pack or light a cigarette. After a few minutes, the urge to smoke will weaken.
Sip some water slowly, holding it in the mouth a little longer to savour the taste.
Take deep slow breaths in and out and repeat three times. Deep breathing will take the focus off the cravings.
Do something else
To take your mind off smoking, do something else:
It is important that TIS teams work to improve Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people’s access to cessation support services such as Quitline. They can do this by raising awareness and understanding of these support services, addressing any misunderstandings, and promoting service use in their region. This might include referring smokers to Quitline, as well as providing education and information about the service.
There is some evidence that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people may be reluctant to use the mainstream Quitline because of a perception that non-Indigenous counsellors would be unable to relate to them, or that they would talk down to them.
Since 2010 the Department of Health has provided funding to all Quitline services to enhance the capacity and knowledge of Quitline counsellors to enable them to deliver appropriate and culturally sensitive services to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Partnerships with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities have been built to promote and encourage use of Quitline services. This has included outreach work with counsellors, visiting services, and community events. Some services also employ dedicated Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander counsellors.
Reports from Quitline providers indicate capacity, with most staff having undertaken training, and an increase in referrals to Quitline (both self-referrals and referrals by agencies) being seen across sites.
While uptake of services has clearly benefited from this approach, evidence for the effectiveness of Quitline for supporting cessation attempts by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people is still limited. However, there is no reason to believe that culturally sensitive Quitlines would not be effective, as long as if people are able to access the service.
The NBPU have produced a Key facts about Quitline factsheet that provides key information about the Quitline service for TIS workers including promotion of Quitline for cessation support, how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Quitline counsellors can help community members and common questions about Quitline.
Behavioural counselling is well established as an effective support mechanism for individuals wishing to quit smoking. Counselling is effective when delivered either on a one-to-one, or in a group setting. There is a relationship between the intensity (length of session contact) and duration (number of sessions) of behavioural smoking cessation counselling and its effectiveness, but even low intensity counselling (3-10 minutes) improves quit rates.
Although the evidence is limited, intensive counselling (more than 10 minutes) has been shown to increase quit rates in some Aboriginal communities. For example, the
included intensive counselling as one component in addition to usual care (quit advice, pharmacotherapy, and patient-initiated follow up). Evidence shows that the program doubled quit rates from 6% to around 12%. This effect was found despite the intervention being implemented with less intensity than originally planned.
Brief intervention (see Box 1) is accepted as an effective approach which increases quit rates in motivated individuals. This approach has been found to be most effective when combined with other interventions such as behavioural support, and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Although it is usually delivered in a one-to-one situation, increasing access to brief intervention training is an important and effective part of a population health promotion approach. This is because:
Box 1: What is a brief intervention?
Brief intervention makes the most of any opportunity to raise awareness, share knowledge and get someone to think about making changes to improve their health and behaviours. Brief intervention uses counselling skills such as motivational interviewing and goal setting. An understanding of the stages of behaviour change is also important. Brief intervention takes as little as 3 minutes and is usually carried out in a one-to-one situation. The 5As for smoking cessation for health professionals is an international smoking cessation framework used in brief intervention that has been shown to be very effective in encouraging and supporting smoking cessation. More information about the 5As can be found in this podcast developed for the National guide to a preventive health assessment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people featuring Professor David Thomas.
Specific barriers to the use of brief intervention with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients have been identified.
Cultural beliefs are particularly important, as they mean that brief intervention is often seen to be inappropriately telling people how to behave.
The Queensland Government developed a brief intervention training program, SmokeCheck, for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Workers and other health professionals who work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health clients and communities, which addressed these barriers. It included culturally sensitive materials and approaches for brief intervention. Evaluation found that SmokeCheck increases health workers confidence when:
Health workers also reported offering more advice about nicotine replacement therapy and reducing tobacco use after training, suggesting a change in behaviour as well as confidence.
A recent study which included SmokeCheck training as part of a multi-component community project, found that while health workers spoke positively about the training. No-one implemented the intervention as they had been shown. Rather they adapted their approach using only some of the components. No evidence is available yet on how this affected client responses to the intervention – it may have been that these adaptations were appropriate responses to individual need.
A guide to the SmokeCheck brief intervention with clients at the various stages of change.
SmokeCheck and other brief intervention training packages designed specifically for working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (e.g. Quitskills) are available in most States and Territories. More information on workforce training for brief intervention can be found here.
Because of the opportunistic nature of brief intervention, it is important that anyone who has contact with smokers from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities has culturally appropriate brief intervention training. In many organisations only health professionals, such as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Workers, nurses, doctors, and dentists are trained to do brief interventions. However, because brief intervention is focused on motivation and education, not therapy, you do not need a health background to do this training. They are also opportunistic, meaning that they do not need to take place in a medical setting. This means anyone can do brief intervention training, including:
Regional Grant funding does not cover TIS teams to offer nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or other stop smoking medication (SSM) to smokers. This is because TIS teams are funded to carry out population health promotion activities, not individual smoking cessation support. However, it is important that TIS workers have up-to-date knowledge of the individual level cessation supports such as NRT and SSM, as these can inform population health promotion activities (e.g community knowledge building).
A number of studies have examined the extent to which NRT is an effective smoking cessation treatment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Overall NRT is effective, particularly if free/subsidised, and especially if accompanied by good follow-up support services. Evidence about the effectiveness of other SSM such as Varenicline (Champix) and bupropion (Zyban) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is limited. An article from the Talking about the Smokes (TATS) survey,
found that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are less likely to use NRT or SSM as part of a quit attempt (37%) than non-Indigenous smokers (58.5%). However, just under three quarters of those surveyed believed NRT and SSM did help smokers quit. Cost is probably the main barrier to using pharmacological aids. Nicotine patches – available to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients at a subsidised cost on an authority script through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) – were the most common pharmacological aids used by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers and recent ex-smokers (24%). Varenicline was the next most commonly used pharmaceutical at 11% and nicotine gum at 10%.
Observational research in remote Northern Territory communities, found that following recommended treatment for using NRT (compliance) can be limited by factors such as:
However, observation of the successful delivery of NRT in one community by a public health nurse showed how compliance improves when regular support and counselling is provided: NRT was supplied in one week blocks with face-to-face follow-up every week at the client’s home. There is also evidence from the
that combining NRT with intensive counselling and support is effective even in remote settings.
This suggests that focusing on increasing compliance is likely to improve quit attempts. This can be done through:
Other activities to increase the use of NRT in helping Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers to quit are:
Another program which demonstrates the effectiveness of a comprehensive service for supporting quit attempts is the
smoking cessation program based in ACT. The program combines weekly support groups, access to NRT (through a GP), phone follow-up, and home and workplace outreach (see Box 1).
It is important to provide health promotion for primary and secondary school age people. There is evidence that school-based activities have an increased chance of working if they:
Linking school-based interventions into wider community activities as part of a multi-component program also seems to boost impact. This is thought to be because the effects of school-based smoking prevention programs are sustained when changes in the larger community are also present and when there is reinforcement of the program over time. A review of the evidence also recommended that 15 or more sessions are delivered to young people at school, at least up until the ages of 14 or 15 years.
Evaluated school-based health education activities for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people, include the
program, an interactive education program of seven weeks which encourages young people to be positive lifestyle role models. Since 2010 this program has been delivered to more than 250 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students across 20 schools and training centres throughout South East Queensland and has been found to have a positive impact in the urban setting on students’ knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy regarding leadership, chronic disease and the impact of risk factors including smoking. These are recognised as important steps towards reducing the number of young people taking up smoking and increasing the number of young people who quit smoking.
According to data from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), almost half of all pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women smoke (44%). Smoking in pregnancy can be supported/encouraged by people’s expectations about what is considered ‘normal’ behaviour, as well as family influences.
Quitting is seen as a difficult thing to do. In 2017, AIHW found that the proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who quit smoking after 20 weeks of pregnancy was 12%. Despite strong protective feelings for the unborn baby and a desire to quit in pregnancy, continued smoking is sometimes seen as a necessary response to stressful situations in life. There is also evidence that women’s interest in quitting is hindered by:
Overall, pregnancy can be a missed opportunity for smoking behaviour change. The evidence shows that effective population health promotion should:
One of the TIS Program elements iSISTAQUIT is designed to increase health service capacity by providing best practice training to health care workers who have contact with pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. You can read more about iSISTAQUIT here.
Regional Grants do not fund TIS teams to offer nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to smokers. However, it is important that TIS workers have up-to-date knowledge of the individual level cessation supports available to pregnant women, as these can inform population health promotion activities (e.g. community knowledge building). While NRT does not always result in smoking cessation by pregnant women, using NRT rather than smoking while pregnant is better for the baby because it removes the other dangerous toxins contained in tobacco smoke. Antenatal smoking guidelines, Management of smoking in pregnant women recommend that pregnant women should first try to quit using counselling and support. If this does not work, then the woman should be offered oral short-acting forms of NRT (lozenge or mouth spray). If this is not effective, smoking cessation treatment may progress to nicotine patches, or if necessary combined therapy (i.e. patches plus oral forms). NRT must only be used in pregnancy under the supervision of a suitably qualified health professional. Other stop smoking medicines (varenicline and bupropion) are not safe to use in pregnancy.
During pregnancy, vaping (using e-cigarettes) that contain nicotine should be discouraged. The emerging evidence suggests this is at least as harmful for the baby as smoking conventional cigarettes.
A recent study in Australia has also demonstrated the acceptability of rewards or incentives to encourage pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to quit or reduce their smoking.
Second-hand and third-hand smoke are health risk factors, particularly for children. If mothers are not ready to quit, then finding ways of avoiding smoking around their children, such as in the car or at home are important ways of improving child health. For more information on this topic please see the section on reducing second-hand and third-hand smoke.
You can find further information in the video and factsheet produced by NBPU TIS which can be downloaded here.
Social media and social networking tools such as Facebook, Instagram, YouTube and Twitter are increasingly being used to help tackle smoking, particularly with young adults. One of the advantages of these platforms is that they are accessible, low cost and familiar to young people. About 15 million Australians are active users of Facebook – around 63% of the total population.
Research by the McNair Ingenuity Research Institute in 2014 found that Facebook is a popular means of communication among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. According to this study (which is ongoing), even in remote communities use of Facebook is higher than in mainstream Australian society.
The use of Facebook and Twitter as a way of communicating is a popular approach for many healthcare services. However the value of these tools seems to lie more in their networking functions. Social media is interactive and user-driven, meaning it has the potential to provide real-time peer to peer support and discussion around tobacco use.
There is currently a lack of evidence of the effectiveness of using social media in tobacco control. Studies that do exist tend to be descriptive, with a focus on the acceptability of the medium to support quitting, or an analysis of posts. A recent study from Canada provides some support for the use of social media for extending the reach and impact of more traditional smoking cessation approaches among young adult smokers. The study found that young people engaged through social media were more than twice as likely to have made a successful quit attempt three months into the campaign than those not on social media and using on-line support only.
The NBPU have produced a Key facts about social media factsheet and infographic that provides key information for TIS workers about using social media to communicate messages about smoking.
Menzies School of Health Research has produced a tips and tricks resource for people working in health promotion and tobacco control, Social media in health promotion and tobacco control: tips and tricks. An accompanying PowerPoint presentation, Can Facebook help Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to quit smoking? is also available.
Mass media and social marketing campaigns aim to reduce the number of people who smoke by changing attitudes, beliefs and intentions surrounding tobacco use. Mass media campaigns take a traditional marketing approach to this aim, treating the desire to be smoke-free as a product to be sold. In contrast, social marketing uses knowledge of specific community barriers to develop more targeted marketing approaches.
Both approaches use education about the negative consequences of smoking and the benefits of not smoking for two purposes:
It is thought these campaigns help to prevent smoking by changing people’s expectations toward smoking, so that tobacco use is no longer accepted as the ‘usual, cool or necessary thing to do.’
There is evidence that both mass media and social marketing campaigns can help prevent smoking from starting, encourage people to stop smoking, and prevent relapse among recent quitters by reminding them about why they chose to stop smoking. However one of the biggest effects is in relation to promoting access to cessation support services such as Quitline, counselling and other health professionals. Developing capacity to support people who are ready to quit – by taking the systems approach described under Planning, is therefore essential if programs are to be sustainable.
A campaign’s impact is influenced by:
The relevance of the message has been found to be important for audience engagement. The context, characters and role models used in advertising or community activities must seem believable, if smokers are to connect to them. When a campaign does not relate to how people see themselves, they find it hard to become interested in the content. While there is some evidence that mass media campaigns do influence attitudes and beliefs of Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders in regard to smoking, more specific local messages tailored for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people seem to be most effective. Evidence from the
project also supports the importance of using targeted advertising.
The Australian Government’s Don’t Make Smokes Your Story campaign is a good example of how advertising and community-based activities can work together to encourage behaviour change among Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander smokers. You can adapt and use these materials and resources for your own activities.
Reducing second-hand and third-hand smoke is an important aim. This is because second-hand and third-hand smoke can be very harmful. The evidence also shows that if smoking is seen as ‘normal’ at a community level, young people are more likely to start smoking, and current smokers will find it harder to quit. Increasing the extent to which a community is smoke-free is associated with less smoking and more success in quitting. Relevant activities include the following:
To be successful, smoke-free policies need community participation – not just consultation – in their development. Policies that have local ownership and commitment are more likely to be followed. There is also evidence that introducing smoke-free policies in the workplace can lead to increased support for smoke-free spaces in other areas such as smoke-free homes and cars. Successful smoke-free workplace policies also result in more workers wanting to quit.
Combining locally owned smoke-free policies with access to quit support services increases the success of these policies. Working in an environment with a smoke free policy can also encourage individuals to quit.
Here are some quick tips on setting up a smoke-free environment: How to set up a smoke free environment.
The Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council (AH&MRC) of New South Wales provide a good set of resources to help you support workplaces to set up smoke-free policies. The second module, Workplace smoking policy in the
provides: advice on how to begin the process; templates for worker consultation; and templates to assess how much smoking happens at work.
Second-hand and third-hand smoke is a health risk factor, particularly for children. Children are at greater risk for a number of reasons, including their size, faster breathing rates and less developed respiratory and immune systems. Second-hand smoke is associated with a number of childhood illnesses including:
Second-hand smoke is also believed to contribute to the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
Less well known, but probably just as harmful is third-hand smoke. Third-hand smoke is the tobacco smoke toxins from second-hand smoke that get into a smoker’s hair and clothes and build up on surfaces and dust in areas where people smoke. Evidence shows that these toxins stay in homes and cars for a long time after the cigarette has been extinguished, even several months later. They may even become more toxic over time.
Third-hand smoke is an emerging area of research and we don’t yet understand all the health hazards. However, children (especially infants), are more vulnerable to third-hand smoke toxins. This is because infants crawl over contaminated floors and mouth contaminated surfaces like furniture and toys. We also know that infants consume up to a quarter of a gram of dust every day. That’s twice as much as adults.
There is good evidence that having a smoke-free home and car improves children’s health. There is also some evidence that keeping the home smoke-free helps to prevent uptake of smoking by young people. There are therefore many good reasons to support people to have smoke-free homes and cars.
A recent review found that intensive counselling methods or motivational interviewing with parents to be most effective for reducing children’s tobacco smoke exposure in the home. There is some indication that school-based education, intensive home visits, brief education provided to parents in clinics (including scheduled children’s health checks) and culturally sensitive health promotion brochures may also help reduce second-hand smoke in the home and car.
Menzies School of Health Research has developed Healthy starts: reducing the health effects of smoking around Indigenous babies and children, a resource to support health providers when discussing second-hand tobacco smoke with families, and to encourage families to have smoke-free homes.
Any opportunity to reduce second-hand smoke is a good investment because there is no safe level of exposure to second-hand smoke, and smoke-free events both denormalise smoking and encourage people to think about quitting. Furthermore a recent survey, Talking About The Smokes (TATS) found that support for smoke-free festivals and events is strong in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, particularly among those who don’t smoke: for never smokers, support was 71%, for ex-smokers 65%, and for non-daily smokers 70%. Half of all daily smokers were in favour of smoke-free events (51%).
Pledging to be smoke-free demonstrates an active commitment and motivation to change. Evidence shows that when someone makes a public declaration (pledge) they are more likely to follow through with that promise, both for themselves, but also because of what others might think of them if they don’t maintain their promise. We also know that people are more likely to stick with a commitment that has real value, purpose and meaning to them.
Smoke-free pledges are a good population health promotion tool because:
How will you determine if your program is working? This section will provide you with the tools to monitor and evaluate your programs.
The processes of monitoring and evaluation use carefully planned and well-thought-out methods to measure the success of a project (or program) in meeting its goals. They are an important part of the project management process, because they provide:
Key terms used when talking about monitoring and evaluation are shown in Box 1.
Box 1: Monitoring and evaluation key terms
Monitoring and evaluation are related processes, but each has a different focus:
Table 1 provides examples of different outputs and outcomes for the TIS program. Monitoring outputs relies on describing and counting project activities and the number of people who come to events. In the past TIS reporting focused only on what is included in the outputs column – ‘what we do and who we reach.’ Now, however, you are being asked to think more about ‘what difference do our activities make?’ This is a question about your project outcomes.
Table 1: Examples of outputs and outcomes for TIS
Smoke-free workshops delivered to 100 workers in 10 community organisations
85 workers have increased knowledge of benefits of smoke-free workplace and increased commitment to being smoke-free at work
8 Organisations are smoke-free
Brief intervention training provided to all staff (N=20) in TIS-funded organisation
20 staff have increased skills to support TIS activities
Most staff describe increased confidence when working with community members
You can find out more about the ‘how, who and what’ of TIS project evaluation in Box 2.
Box 2: The how, who and what of evaluation
How to plan an evaluation?
It’s a good idea to work out an evaluation plan for your project, so you can keep track of the evaluation. In your plan consider the following points:
Who will do the evaluation?
Work out who will be responsible for organising and writing up the evaluation.
Who should participate in an evaluation?
Good evaluations involve those who are interested and affected by your project. Involving people from the earliest stages of the project’s development to the final evaluation can encourage local communities to set up, control and own a project. Putting together a working group (a group appointed to study or report on a particular question) of community members also helps the evaluation process. A working group brings the values and shared interests of the community into the process. Often they are also the ones who are best placed to talk about the needs of their community.
What should you evaluate?
What aspect of the project do you want to evaluate? For example, do you want to know if the project’s objectives were met? Or do you want to know what people liked about the project? There are lots of evaluation questions you could use. Examples of the sorts of questions you might use to answer different questions are provided in the
What sort of resources will you need for your evaluation?
Be realistic about what resources are available to undertake the evaluation. This includes funding, time, staff, salaries, material, equipment and operating costs.
Source: material adapted from Kruger K, McMillan N, Russ P and Smallwood H (2007) Talkin’ up good air: Australian Indigenous tobacco control resource kit. Melbourne: Centre for Excellence in Indigenous Tobacco Control
Or for a more in-depth general discussion of behaviour change evaluation and definitions of some other terms used in monitoring and evaluation, you might find the Evaluation toolbox useful.
Monitoring and evaluation should be built into your project from the start. It is also a requirement of TIS program funding to measure your outcomes every six months for Indigenous Australians’ Health Programme (IAHP) grant agreement progress reporting. The
developed by HealthInfoNet on behalf of the Australian Government (2012), describes a simple six step process to building evaluation into a project plan:
Examples of ways to present your data using charts and dashboards for good visual impacts can be found in this monitoring and evaluation resource or on the Resources to monitor and evaluate your program page here.
Figure 1: Keeping your project on track
Figure 1 shows how monitoring and evaluation forms a central part of your project. You can use the information that you collect to make sure activities are on track and that you are achieving the outcomes you intended, adapting and improving your project as you go. This process of using monitoring and evaluation data to improve your project or activities as you go is known as continual quality improvement (CQI). If you are working in a clinical setting you might be interested in the
developed by Menzies School of Health Research in association with One21Seventy. More tips for how to use monitoring and evaluation data are provided in Box 3.
Box 3: Using monitoring and evaluation data
Projects do not always run as planned or as expected, and are a learning experience for all those involved. Monitoring your activities and evaluating outcomes will help you keep track of progress, identify important changes and make it easier to see what you have achieved. Answering the following questions may help keep your project on track:
Source: adapted from Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet (2012) 
 This material is used with permission from the Commonwealth of Australia. Talkin’ up good air contains materials that were contributed by Quit Victoria (Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria), Apunipima Cape York Health Council, National Heart Foundation of Australia (NSW Division), Council of Social Services of New South Wales and Queensland Health and which remain their property.
 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet (2012) Healthy, Deadly and Strong: Healthy Lifestyle Worker Toolkit. Perth, WA: Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet
This section will provide you with tools and resources to plan and support your tobacco control activities. Click on the links below for more information.
Once you have decided what you want to accomplish through your program, you will need to choose activities that will help you to achieve these aims. It is important that Tackling Indigenous Smoking (TIS) activities are effective for achieving the proposed outcomes of the TIS program (e.g. increasing awareness of the benefits of not smoking, more smoke-free environments, increased quit attempts, reduced uptake of smoking). The best way of ensuring that an activity is effective is to use ones which have been tried and tested, so we have evidence that they work. It is also important that you choose the right activities for your local population needs and your local community context. Your role is to use your understanding of the communities in your region, your professional experience and expertise, along with your knowledge of the evidence to put together a suitable set of activities.
Evidence is the information or knowledge about ‘what works’ which can help you decide which activities you will use. Evidence comes from many different sources including published research, and many professionals value this kind of evidence the most. However published research about TIS activities is not always available. Local evidence that an activity works also has an important role to play in the development of TIS activities.
Figure 1: Using the evidence to develop locally relevant services
This is one reason why the careful monitoring and evaluation of local activities is an essential part of the TIS program. Collecting accurate and thorough local data will help you to see what works best and this information can then be used to improve your activities. You can also share this with other TIS-funded organisations and contribute to the evidence on what works for TIS.
Sometimes collecting data can be challenging – the number of participants in a program may be small, or it may be that it can take a long time to see changes in smoking behaviour in the wider community. The NBPU TIS can support teams to address these and other challenges in order to develop the evidence base for TIS.
It is important to remember that the evidence does not provide a set of fixed solutions (it is not a ‘recipe book’). It is one element in an ongoing process. Your decision making will draw on your professional expertise about TIS and the local community with the evolving local and research evidence to develop a locally relevant service (Figure 1).
Stopping smoking by current smokers is the best way of reducing tobacco-related harm. Individuals may make several quit attempts before successfully stopping smoking for good. This is why health promotion activities and community development to support quitting are so important; it’s about continually reminding people of the importance of quitting and informing them about where to get help. It is important that as well as providing education about tobacco harms, organisations providing health promotion activities are able to refer people who want to quit to smoking cessation support services. Being part of a wider health service system or network is therefore essential for TIS teams.
The Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet acknowledges the Traditional Owners of the lands and waters of Australia and the Torres Strait.
We respect all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people—their customs and their beliefs. We also pay our respects to Elders past and present, with particular acknowledgement to the Whadjuk people of the Nyoongar nation, the traditional owners of the lands where our offices are located.